The three wise herbalists brought… Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh




Everybody knows the story of the three wise men bringing gifts of Gold, Frankincense and Myrrh to the infant Jesus in the Christmas nativity. There is plenty of symbology around these iconic gifts allowing a host of interpretations. What I want to focus on here are some very real medical uses of the herbs Frankincense and Myrrh, and if you allow me a little bit of poetic licence, Saffron (as gold)…



Whilst the metallic element, gold, does have some medical uses, as a Medical Herbalist I do not use it, so I am going to talk about the golden herb saffron, which can literally be worth its weight in gold. [Daily Mail: How an ounce of saffron is more expensive than gold: Cultivation of exotic spice returns to Essex for the first time in 200 years]

Saffron is made from the stamen of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus). Each crocus produces just three of these delicate strands per year, and they must be laboriously picked by hand before drying, at the right temperature and duration.

When used in cooking – such as saffron loaf or saffron rice – it adds a strong golden colour and has a distinctive aroma and flavour. I always add half a dozen strands of Kashmiri saffron when making a small pot of special gunpowder green tea. When used medicinally it has serotonergic (mood enhancing) effects, is an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulscent, has anti-timor effects, neuro-endocrine (hormone engaging) influence and has neuro-protective properties [ref].

Here is some evidence of medical efficacy:

  • Depression
    A 2014 review of the scientific literature [ref] identified six high quality studies that demonstrated  a positive effect, similar to that seen with anti-depressants drugs, and without the dependence or side effects.
  • Psychological and behavioural
    An excellent 2015 review paper from an American research team [ref] concluded: “Findings from initial clinical trials suggest that saffron may improve the symptoms and the effects of depression, premenstrual syndrome, sexual dysfunction and infertility, and excessive snacking behaviors.”
  • Cardiovascular
    It is reported that regions of the world that regularly consume saffron have lower levels of heart disease. The anti-atherosclerotic, antioxidant, anti-diabetes, hypotensive, anti-ischemic, anti-platelet aggregation effects of saffron suggest it is cardio protective and animal studies show this to be the case. [ref]
  • Diabetes
    Saffron has a hypoglycaemic effect and has been shown to raise insulin levels in diabetic rats with low insulin, whilst enhancing glucose uptake. Its antioxidant properties may reduce diabetic vascular complications too [ref].
  • Obesity & Weight Loss
    Saffron has been shown to reduce body weight in rats, whilst in humans it has been shown to reduce appetite and increase satiety [ref] “After 2 months, the subjects using the saffron extract reported a decrease in snacking and lost more weight than the control group”

Safety: The widespread use of saffron as a culinary spice suggests it is safe at those doses. This superb paper, published in 2012 by an Italian team of researchers reviews the known biological effects of this amazing herbal medicine [ref] and it concludes: “To date, very few adverse health effects of saffron have been demonstrated. At high doses (more than 5 g per day), it should be avoided in pregnancy owing to its uterine stimulation activity.” Well that’s fine, as it is therapeutic well below that dose. It is a significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, and since these processes a known to be the drivers of most major diseases I think it worth revisiting the use of this herb more widely. The problem is just the cost!



As well as being burned for incense in religious ceremonies this gum distinctly medicinal. Chewing on bobbles of frankincense is good for mouth ulcers and gum disease, but tastes like soap or turpentine. Mostly it is therefore used either as an essential oil or powdered and encapsulated. One can also concentrate the 5-Loxin component to optimise the anti-inflammatory properties, as in one of the products I stock.

This traditional medicine of the Middle East has expectorant, antiseptic, and even anxiolytic (i.e. calming) and anti-neurotic effects as well as the well recognised anti-inflammatory ones. Indeed recent studies have shown it has analgesic, tranquilising, anti-bacterial and anti-tumour effects too, which gives it a role in the treatment of quite a range of common conditions. [ref]

The following medicinal effects come from a 2016 review:

  • Gastro-Intestinal
    Its anti-inflammatory effect gives it a place in inflammatory bowel disease (i.e. ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease), irritable bowel syndrome, bronchitis and sinusitis. In human studies of colitis patients, the resin was far more effective than the standard drug: “Out of the patients treated with Boswellia gum resin, 70% went into remission while in the case of sulfasalazine [the standard drug it was compared to] the remission ratio was 40%”
  • Anti-fungal
    Frankincense is strongly anti-fungal towards candida species. As well as many other moulds including food borne moulds. (One wonders if it would be effective burned as incense to reduce mould spores in houses… )
  • Asthma
    Severity and risk of asthma attacks is reduced by consumption of Frankincense gum, or by inhalation of the smoke when burned.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis Multiple lines of evidence suggest that frankinscence could help via anti-oxidant and potent anti-inflammatory effects. One researcher noted that “at a dose of 200 mg/kg, B. serrata extracts shift the balance of cytokines towards a bone-protecting pattern”

Memory, Dementia, Alzheimer’s
There is considerable interest in the role of Frankincense gum in cognitive impairment as it has been shown to improve memory in animal models of Alzheimer’s [ref]. In fact recent studies have shown that it increases neurone formation in the hippocampus [ref], i.e. that part of the brain that is essential for new memory formation. A recent human study of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis found that it “showed significant improvement in visuospatial memory, but had no effect on verbal memory and information processing speed.” [ref]. I would not be using simply frankincense for dementia, as there are other very valuable measures that should be employed, but this resin, depending on the case, could play a significant role in a rounded treatment approach.

In my clinical practice I find Boswellia particularly useful in autoimmune disorders, and when inflammation suddenly occurs, such as polymyalgia rheumatica, for example, which can come on over night and cause severe joint pain, disability and exhaustion. The usual drugs used by doctors have real problems associated with them, as they are aimed at suppression of the immune system, which you cannot do without negative consequences, whereas taking a deeper look at what may have triggered the condition, and treating in a more thoughtful way with medicinal herbs, including frankincense, has been very successful to date with no long term adverse effects.



Another aromatic resinmyrrh, (Commiphora mol mol) also comes from the Middle East, in fact Yemen originally and it has been used in the Western Herbal Medicine tradition for hundreds of years. I prefer the alcoholic extract (tincture) to the resin itself for ease of use, and offer it as part of my Home Herbal set in a dropper bottle as shown above. It is part of the Home Herbal range of medicines that I encourage my patients to keep in their medicine cupboard at all times because it is so reliable, effective and practical to use.

Ten to twenty drops added to a glass of water makes an excellent gargle for sore throats, gingivitis (inflamed gums), receding gums, loose teeth, mouth ulcers, and as a general antiseptic mouth wash which can be swished between the teeth where toothbrush bristles may not reach. A few drops can be put onto the toothbrush along with toothpaste (or my favourite alternative – salt and sodium bicarbonate). Tincture of myrrh can be dabbed neat onto small cuts or bites as it is strongly antimicrobial, antiseptic and astringent, thus helping to defend against any nasty bugs that can get in when bitten by a mosquito or whenever the skin barrier is breached, and as an astringent it helps bring swelling down [ref]. It has been used successfully in the treatment of intestinal worms, as have certain other herbs, most of which, like myrrh, taste bad (to humans and to worms, clearly)!

Myrrh has many similar properties to Frankinscence, including analgesia (pain relief), anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties [ref]. I find it has a vital place in the treatment of most infections, including gastroenteritis, ‘flu, colds, sore throats, bronchitis, pneumonia etc, as well as ulcers in any tissue (incl legs, stomach and mouth) and in arthritis. As an anti-inflammatory it has a role in cancer [ref] along with other herbs and dietary measures.

Apart from the above uses, myrrh has also been used in leprosy and syphilis too, which, though it may sound far fetched is quite reasonable. It is a powerful antimicrobial herb, so any bacterial infections can sensibly be treated with this age old defender of health, including common candida albicans and staphylococcal infections. They didn’t give it to the Messiah for nothing! In fact midwives used to dab myrrh onto the cut umbilical cord of new born babes in the less hygienic environment of the past [ref].

  • Gastro-Intestinal
    The anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory effects of myrrh are of great value when treating inflamed gut disorders [ref]. As myrrh raises white blood cell numbers it assists in ulcer and wound healing too [ref]
  • Skin
    Myrrh has been shown to be effective at treating fungal infections of the skin [ref] including ringworm, and systemic fungal problems caused by candida albicans (once treated, maintenance through a low carbohydrate diet would be wise too).
  • Liver
    Myrrh has been shown to protect the liver from lipopolysaccharides (a major gut endotoxin) and “might be sufficient to combat cellular damage caused by various conditions that resemble fulminant hepatitis” according to researchers in Saudi Arabia [ref].
  • Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
    Myrrh “has the ability to improve insulin sensitivity and delay the development of insulin resistance… and may be used as an adjuvant therapy for patients with insulin resistance.” [ref]
  • Parasites
    Here is an in-depth paper: Myrrh: A Significant Development in the Treatment of Parasites (pdf) by a colleague of mine, the Medical Herbalist Kerry Bone. Two of the most studied areas are for the treatment of schistosomiasis (a flatworm) and fasciola (a liver fluke) – two common parasitic infections in the tropics and subtropics [ref].

So, in wishing all my readers and patients a very Merry Christmas, I also want to encourage you to use your gold, frankincense and myrrh as wisely as those three wise men. Or rather, if you have any sort of medical problem or niggle, book an appointment with me and we will see what how best to approach it using medicinal herbs and nourishing foods. Chances are you will find me to be a wise woman too.

August News Round-Up

Breast feeding may protect babies from meningitis, blood poisoning and pneumonia.

The Mail (26th August) reports on a study by Imperial College London, which found that a sugar present in the breast milk of roughly half of women (it depends on blood type!) reduces rotavirus and group B streptococcus, as well as boosting a child’s ‘friendly’ gut bacteria, effectively protecting them from these infections. (Also covered in Medical News Today)

Childhood antibiotics increase risk of T1Diabetes

Whilst on the subject of infant gut health… MedPageToday (24th August) reports on a mouse study mimicking typical early childhood antibiotic exposure, which induced altered gut microbiota, T-cell populations, and gene expression which doubled the incidence of type 1 diabetes compared with mice on a low level of antibiotics.

Mediterranean diet more effective than statins

Many newspapers, including The Telegraph (28th August), reported on a study that looked at the impact of the Med diet on survival of heart patients. It found that it cut the chances of early death by 37 per cent (relative risk). Previous research has found just taking statins cuts mortality by 18 per cent, making the Med diet twice as effective… and at least four times as tasty. OK, I made that last bit up.

...and protects against Alzheimer’s and Dementia

Medical Daily (10th Aug) reports on a study published in the journal Frontiers in Nutrition which found that elderly people who eat a Med diet pattern benefit from better brain health.

Paleo diet in healthy people may improve cardiovascular health

A small preliminary trial found that after just 8 weeks there was an increase in the molecule IL10 (interlukin-10) indicating reduced arterial inflammation. For the exagerated headlines head over to the Mail (29th August), or for a more sober reflection try Medical News Today.

Fish oils in brief:


The lab rats get their own back!

Ketones improve cognitive function and endurance

Medical Daily (18th Aug) report on a study which found that lab rats made ‘ketogenic’ through calorie restriction and supplementing with ketones had improved cognitive function and exercise endurance. It’s an odd approach, but seems to lend credence to the performance athletes that are using high fat diets for endurance sports. What is remarkable in this study is that the rats were not only ran for longer, but faster too!

This Month’s Guest Publication: NEW SCIENTIST

New Scientist Aug 2016

In our household New Scientist is the only magazine we have a subscription for, and have received the print edition every week for over a decade. We are often struck by how often it covers topics we have just posted about or covered in a talk (i.e. We got there first – high fives!) This month’s editions have had several articles that I think might be of interest to my readers. If you don’t want to buy the print edition their website has some content that is free, although some requires a sign up or subscription, likewise with some of the links below.

1. Sleep disruption and infections  (FREE ACCESS)

I am seeing more and more evidence on the importance of sleep (see our post on Sleep and Health). Here is another bit: a study in which mice were shown to be more susceptible to viral (herpes) infections towards the end of the day, suggesting that late nights, sleep disruption and shift work may make us more vulnerable to infections.

2. Migraines and Salt  (FREE ACCESS)

What is so great about science is that it is always throwing up unexpected results. Here is one of those. It had previously been observed that sodium levels in the cerebrospinal fluid rise during a migraine. High sodium levels make neurons more excitable. So it seemed reasonable to assume that high levels of salt in the diet might be associated with increased, or worse migraines amongst sufferers.

So researchers were surprised, as was I, when they checked the surveys of 8819 adults and discovered the exact opposite – those with the highest levels of sodium in their diet reported the fewest severe headaches and migraines

3. More doubt on vitamin pills  (FREE SIGN UP

Many vitamin pills – taken as an ‘insurance policy’ when there is no evidence of deficiency – may do more harm than good. The latest bit of research is that calcium supplements appear to increase the risk of dementia. One study found a seven fold increase in risk!

4. Archaeology – food for thought

Otzi and Teotihuacan

LEFT: Analysis of Otzi  the 5300 year old, copper age iceman discovered in the Alps twenty years ago, has shown that he was clothed in the skins of many animals: His quiver was made from roe deer, his hat from brown bear. His coat from goat and sheep, leggings from goat leather, and his loin cloth from sheep leather. (FREE ACCESS)

RIGHT: Studies of the ancient Mexican city of Teotihuacan (1st to 4th century) has revealed that they farmed rabbits in large quantities for food. (FREE ACCESS)

5. BAD MEDICINE: Why so much health advice turns out to be wrong (SUBSCRIPTION REQUIRED)

A great article documenting ten major areas of medicine where the conventional thinking turned out to be wrong. I’ll just give you three of my favourites:

    Rationale: they work in cases of heart attack, so have been assumed to benefit those with stable heart disease, so became common practice from 2004.
    Reversal: Shown not to reduce future heart attacks or death, and may cause harm
    Rationale: Early detection will help intercept the disease before it progresses too far. So Mammograms and PSA testing have been routine since 1980’s
    Reversal: Many false positives lead to unnecessary procedures. PSA testing no longer recommended in the US.
    Rationale: Removing damaged cartilage will (obviously) reduce pain and increase mobility. By 2002 their were over half a million procedures being carried out each year in the US.
    Reversal: Several trials have found no benefit over physical therapy alone.

I hope you have enjoyed these items. If so, leave a comment to let me know. (Or hit the like button if you’re in a hurry!)

February News Round-Up

It’s our news-round-up anniversary!

We first started blogging about nutrition in the news 12 months ago and have kept it up every month since. Something we really are proud of! It is interesting to look back at the topics we have covered – they have been very diverse indeed. And this month’s round-up is no exception…

Kicking off with New Scientist magazine (Feb 24th) which had a two page article looking at the use of a low-carb, high-fat ketogenic diet in cancer. We have previously blogged about this approach – see here.

Again in New Scientist (Feb 19th) – an opinion piece arguing for a sugar tax of between 20% to 50% on fizzy drinks. Susan Jebb, professor of diet and population health at the University of Oxford, says a sugar tax is a “no brainer”.

Linked to concerns about sugar came the revelation that many high street coffee shops’ are serving hot drinks laced with the stuff. The Guardian (Feb 17th) provides a good set of data, showing that some options have 10 to 20 teaspoons of sugar. Have a read and you can avoid the worst offenders.

Carriers of the APOE4 gene – a fat metabolism gene that is included in the genetic testing I offer – are known to be at an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. There has been some debate about what diet may best suit carriers of this gene. So it is good to see MedPage Today (Feb 2nd) report on an study that found seafood protective against Alzheimers disease, but only for people carrying the APOE4 gene.

In a recent trial, Vitamin-D supplementation reduced prostate cancer aggressiveness. MedPage Today (Feb 25th) provides good coverage.

boiled egg and keto-bread soldiers

Boiled eggs with keto-bread soldiers (recipe here)

Eggs got a lot of attention this month, with pregnant UK mums being told it is safe to eat runny egg yolks after all (TV3 Feb 1st). The diet doctor twins tell us ‘Here’s why the data don’t back those trying to vilify eggs’ (MedPage Today, 8th Feb). If you really want to try something different the Mail Online (14th Feb) tells us that Wiatrose is now selling Emu eggs for £23 per pop (ouch!). The emu eggs are bright blue, take 90 minutes to boil, and are each as large as a dozen hens eggs. Not sure I’ll be rushing out to buy them, but I do get duck eggs now and then, and goose eggs once or twice a year.

Finally, Crossbush farm shop (nr Arundel) is now offering gluten-free scotch eggs (of the hen not emu variety) – drop in and give them a try. We found them very satisfying as a travelling lunch when we went away recently. Not fully grain free – but they only use rice and potato flour which, once in a blue moon, won’t bust the physiology of most people.